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Byzantium - The Common Root

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Byzantium
The Common Root

From Wikipedia

Byzantium was the ancient Greek city on the site that later became Constantinople (modern Istanbul). It was founded by Greek colonists from Megara in 657 BC. The city was rebuilt and reinaugurated as the new capital of the Roman Empire by Emperor Constantine I in 330 AD and subsequently renamed to Constantinople. The city remained the capital of the Byzantine Empire until 1453, when it was conquered and became the capital of the Ottoman Empire. Since the establishment of modern Turkey in 1923, the Turkish name of the city, Istanbul, has replaced the name Constantinople in the West.

The name of Byzantion is believed to be of Thracian or Illyrian origin and may be derived from a Thracian or Illyrian personal name, Byzas. Ancient Greek legend refers to a legendary king of that name as the leader of the Megarean colonists and eponymous founder of the city. The form Byzantium is a Latinization of the Greek.

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The origins of Byzantium are shrouded in legend. The traditional legend has it that Byzas from Megara (a town near Athens), founded Byzantium in 657 BC, when he sailed northeast across the Aegean Sea. Byzas had consulted the Oracle at Delphi to ask where to make his new city. The Oracle told him to find it "opposite the blind." At the time, he did not know what this meant. But when he came upon the Bosporus he understood: on the opposite eastern shore was a Greek city, Chalcedon, whose founders were said to have overlooked the superior location only 3 kilometres (1.9 mi) away. Byzas founded his city here on the European coast and named it Byzantium after himself. It was mainly a trading city due to its location at the Black Sea's only entrance. Byzantion later conquered Chalcedon, across the Bosporus on the Asiatic side.

After siding with Pescennius Niger against the victorious Septimius Severus, the city was besieged by Roman forces and suffered extensive damage in 196 AD. Byzantium was rebuilt by Septimius Severus, now emperor, and quickly regained its previous prosperity. It was bound to Perinthos during the period of Septimius Severus. The location of Byzantium attracted Roman Emperor Constantine I who, in 330 AD, refounded it as an imperial residence inspired by Rome itself. After his death the city was called Constantinople  It remained the capital of the Eastern Roman Empire, which is called the Byzantine Empire by modern historians. This combination of imperialism and location would affect Constantinople's role as the nexus point between two continents: Europe and Asia. It was a commercial, cultural, and diplomatic magnet. With its strategic position, Constantinople controlled the route between Asia and Europe, as well as the passage from the Mediterranean Sea to the Black Sea. On May 29, 1453, the city fell to the Ottoman Turks, and again became the capital of a powerful state, the Ottoman Empire. The Turks called the city Istanbul (though not officially renamed until 1930) and it has remained Turkey's largest and most populous city, although Ankara is now the capital.

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Other videos in channel "Byzantium":

Art of Eternity - The Glory of Byzantium Art of Eternity - The Glory of Byzantium Byzantium - The Common Root Byzantium - The Common Root Byzantium, The Lost Empire 01 - Building the Dream Byzantium, The Lost Empire 01 - Building the Dream
Byzantium, The Lost Empire 02 -  Heaven On Earth Byzantium, The Lost Empire 02 - Heaven On Earth Byzantium, The Lost Empire 03 - Envy of the World Byzantium, The Lost Empire 03 - Envy of the World
Byzantium, The Lost Empire 04 - Forever And Ever Byzantium, The Lost Empire 04 - Forever And Ever Byzantium: A Tale of Three Cities Byzantium: A Tale of Three Cities Engineering an Empire - The Byzantines Engineering an Empire - The Byzantines
Fall Of An Empire - The Byzantine Lesson Fall Of An Empire - The Byzantine Lesson The Byzantines The Byzantines
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